Canine Influenza Virus Outbreak: Bay Area and Beyond

An outbreak of Canine Influenza Virus (CIV) began in December in the Bay Area of California. We are closely watching as more information becomes available and we have shared recommendations with the Portland veterinary community to help minimize the impact on dogs in our community.

The outbreak of CIV is in the South Bay Area of California as well as smaller incidence in Fresno, Reno, and around Sacramento. As of February 15th, two positive cases have now been identified in Idaho and one in Grants Pass, Oregon.

Details of the current outbreak are still unfolding and according to IDEXX and Cornell University, over 413 cases of H3N2 CIV have now been confirmed and many more suspected.  This outbreak is believed to have originated in boarding facilities and a doggy daycare. Many boarding, grooming, daycare, and dog park facilities have closed in the South Bay area to help prevent further spread of the virus. Many boarding and grooming facilities now require a current CIV vaccine.

Due to the close geographical relationship between Oregon, including the greater Portland area, and the San Francisco Bay Area and with many high-tech business links and frequent travel between these cities, the risk of introducing CIV significantly could significantly increase in the Portland Area.

Recommendation for Oregon Dogs:
The Portland Veterinary Medical Association, the Oregon Veterinary Medical Association, and the State Public Health Veterinarian, Dr. Emilio DeBess, are recommending proactively vaccinating  of all at-risk dogs for CIV to protect of these patient and prevent an outbreak in our community.

Dogs at increased risk of exposure include but not limited to dogs with lifestyles that include dog parks, dog-daycare, dog shows, grooming, boarding, travel (car, air, etc), rescue animals and dogs with pre-existing heart disease or lung disease, potential senior dogs, and brachycephalic breeds.

In general dogs should be vaccinated with a 2-dose series of a bivalent vaccine, 2-4 weeks apart. Full effectiveness does not occur until 7-10 days after the SECOND immunization in the initial series and is effective for 12 months. CIV vaccines may not prevent infection but are believed to significantly decrease the severity and degree of infection, illness, and viral shedding. Boosters should then be given annually.

Lapses on vaccine schedule past 18 months of the last vaccine without an annual booster should repeat the 2-dose series. There is no cross-protection from viral subtypes, or with other causes of kennel cough. At-risk patients should also be current on bordetella and parainfluenza.

For Veterinarians:
Canine Influenza is a voluntarily reportable disease in Oregon. Please report cases using this form:

As with other emerging diseases, for a limited time, PCR testing may be performed at Oregon State University’s Diagnostic Lab under the Public Health Veterinarian’s account at no cost to area veterinarians. Qualifying samples must be taken during acute phase (within 2 days of onset of clinical signs), and patients must be febrile >103 F, nasal discharge, and cough with potential pulmonary involvement. Deep nasal and deep oral samples are acceptable.

Additional testing information can be found here: If you would like to take advantage of this opportunity to test at OSU, please write Dr. DeBess’s name on the account information form when sending in samples. Testing at OSU is supported by the PVMA and Zoetis.

Please contact your veterinarian to discuss your specific dog’s risks and to learn more about Canine Influenza Virus.